Racehorse Fitness Training
Racehorse Fitness Training
To perform at high levels, any horse – especially racehorses – need to be in top condition. The goal of any basic horse conditioning program is to enhance the psychological and physical responses to exercise. Psychological responses include greater confidence and desire to perform and minimized boredom and resentment. Physical responses include greater strength and endurance; enhanced skills, such as breaking from the gate quickly; and minimized soreness or injury due to exercise. When a horse is in peak mental and physical condition, the trainer has the makings of a true athlete.
Some of the most important physical adaptations achieved by conditioning a horse involve:
Respiratory System: increased oxygen uptake, decreased ventilation during exercise.
Cardiovascular System: lower heart rate during exercise, increased heart size/strength, increased vascularity (decreased resistance), increased total red cell volume (increased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood).
Muscular Anatomy: increased aerobic capacity (increased fast-twitch high oxidative fibers = more time before lactic acid accumulation and fatigue during endurance events), increase in muscle size/strength, change in fiber type.
Tendons and Ligaments: strength and quality may be affected.
Bone: decreased bone turnover, increased quantity, quality and geometry of bone in response to training.
Thermoregulation: a process that allows the body to maintain its core internal temperature.
A conditioning program should be tailored around your horse’s age, racing style and racing schedule, so it slowly builds muscle and stamina without causing excessive stress to the animal.
There are two general classes of conditioning programs: slow speed and high speed.
Slow-speed, long-distance conditioning, or endurance training, is used in the first weeks of all conditioning programs. This method usually precedes fast exercise in some conditioning programs, such as cardiac conditioning. It includes sessions of trotting and cantering at slow speeds for long distances to promote aerobic production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for energy.
Trainers usually start the horses off slowly and gradually increase the distance at two- to three-week intervals. The total length of time a horse remains on this conditioning program varies with the type of event and can be anywhere from four to five weeks or longer, depending on the animal. Improvements in aerobic capacity, limb strength and adaptation of skeletal muscle have been seen with slow-speed conditioning.
High-speed conditioning is used to improve the anaerobic capacity of a horse and is generally interspersed with slow-speed, long-distance days. This conditioning method varies with the horse and the event. Some trainers increase the speed for very short distances until near maximum speed is reached, then increase the distance. Others establish a set distance and gradually increase the speed. The frequency of the high-speed days varies with the conditioning method used. For example, in North America, racehorse trainers will commonly use “breeze” (fast galloping for short distances) work at 75 percent of the maximum speed of the event one time every seven to 10 days. Other trainers will gallop their horses at near maximum event speed one time every five days.
The common goal of high-speed conditioning is to increase the amount of training that stimulates anaerobic production of ATP without causing fatigue or over training. It is thought that conditioning at maximum event speed might overwork a horse; therefore, most trainers condition their horses at 70 to 85 percent maximum event speed. In England, horses work on a rotational conditioning schedule of hills and flat ground. Using a treadmill with a 5 to 10 percent incline will also increase the anaerobic capacity of a horse without galloping at maximum speed. The physiological adaptations to high-speed conditioning include an increase in Type II muscle fibers.
Interval Horse Training
Interval training is the use of multiple workouts on the same day separated by short rest periods. Some trainers will use this conditioning method as the horse’s high-speed program. Limited research has shown that interval training may alter muscle fiber type, something that has not been shown to occur with strictly high-speed conditioning. Interval conditioning of the equine athlete should not be performed at 95 to 100 percent maximum speed, as it may lead to over training and possibly the reversal of physiological training adaptations.
Over Training of Horses
To maintain peak fitness of an athletic horse, the conditioning program must always be evaluated and adjusted.
Constant exercise at suboptimal intensities will limit the rate of adaptation, and constant exercise at maximum intensities may contribute to over training. Over training is a loss of performance ability despite the maintenance of or an increase in training effort. When over training occurs, the horse’s conditioning program must stop or be reduced for a variable period of time in order for the horse to recover.
Detraining is the sudden cessation of a conditioning program for reasons such as sickness or injury. During this time, the horse experiences a rapid loss of physiological training adaptations. Changes in muscle occur in two to four weeks, followed by cardiovascular and bone changes. A decrease in muscle size and strength occur in the shortest amount of time. Oxygen uptake and ventilation capacity decrease within three weeks of detraining.