Horse-Breeding Woes: Foal Diarrhea
Most cases of foal diarrhea are normal and will go away quickly.
By Dr. Patrick M. McCue in The American Quarter Horse Journal | January 1, 0001
January is the beginning of foaling season for many, so take a look at some common foal ailments and issues, including diarrhea. A majority of foals will exhibit diarrhea at some time within the first two months of life. In most cases, the diarrhea is mild, transient, not contagious to other foals and not life-threatening. However, in some instances, diarrhea can be contagious, severe and even fatal. Noninfectious diarrhea occurs most commonly during the first two weeks after birth as foals establish their normal complement of intestinal microorganisms. This transient physiological condition has been termed “foal heat diarrhea” because it occurs at approximately the same time as the mare is first returning to estrus after foaling. Contrary to popular belief, foal heat diarrhea is not associated with normal hormonal changes in the mare or alterations in the composition of her milk.
The condition occurs after the foal begins to eat solid food and ingests fecal material from the mare. Ingestion of feces, termed coprophagy, is a natural or instinctual behavior for a young foal and is how normal gut flora and fauna are acquired. The typical foal heat diarrhea is self-limiting and not contagious. Affected foals are bright and alert, continue to nurse and do not have a fever. Additional causes of non-infectious diarrhea in foals include lactose intolerance, over feeding, ingestion of sand, and administration of certain antibiotics.
The most common infectious cause of diarrhea in foals is rotavirus. This viral disease is highly contagious and often affects multiple foals in a barn or on a farm. The incubation period, or time interval between exposure and onset of clinical signs, is between three and 10 days. Affected foals may have a mild to moderate fever and are often depressed and not nursing well. Foals with rotavirus may become dehydrated rapidly due to decreased fluid intake (i.e. not nursing) and increased fluid output (i.e. watery stool). A clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by detecting the presence of virus in feces submitted to a diagnostic lab.
Foals require special care and have specific nutritional needs. The AQHA Equine Breeding Techniques and Foal Health Tips report can help you prepare to raise a healthy foal.
The incidence of rotavirus infection can be reduced on farms by isolating affected foals, paying strict attention to hygiene and disinfecting stalls and equipment. Mares may be vaccinated at eight, nine and 10 months of pregnancy to increase antibody levels in colostrum for passive transfer to the newborn foal. Other infectious causes of diarrhea in foals include salmonella, E. coli, clostridium, rhodococcus and other bacterial or viral organisms.
Management strategies for foals with diarrhea depend on severity, duration and cause. In general, administering fluids is one of the most important components of medical therapy. Mild cases can be treated safely and effectively with an oral fluid and electrolyte solution, while more severe cases might require intravenous fluid administration. Intestinal protectants such as bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol,), intestinal adsorbents (Bio-Sponge) and probiotics are commonly used. Other therapies that may be recommended by a veterinarian include anti-ulcer medications, analgesics, antibiotics and/or intravenous plasma administration.
Whether or not we are ready, foaling season is upon us. Calm your last-minute anxiousness with the AQHA Breeding Techniques and Health Foal Tips report. Discover the ins and outs of mare care, stages of labor and more with the help of AQHA.
Noninfectious causes of diarrhea often resolve spontaneously or with minimal medical intervention. Foals that are febrile, depressed, not nursing and/or have a profuse watery or bloody diarrhea should be examined and treated by a veterinarian. Appropriate diagnostic tests, management decisions and medical therapy may be critical in preventing spread of infectious organisms or limiting the severity of illness in affected foals. Dr. Patrick M. McCue is the equine reproduction laboratory director at the College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University and a regular contributor to The American Quarter Horse Journal.
Did you know that, as an AQHA member, you can participate in the AQHA Incentive Fund program? The program involves stallion and foal nominations with pay backs to the stallion nominators, foal nominators and owners of the competing horses. Continue reading about the fund and educate yourself on the awaiting opportunities for your stallions and foals.